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Historiador não resgata nada, quem resgata é bombeiro

Nunca se falou tanto em “resgate” de tradições e memórias. Mas afinal, o que é tradição? O que faz com que algo seja tradicional?
postado por jornalismo em   03/11/2015

 

ilustração artigo 2 Diana

Autor da ilustração: Leandro Pereira dos Santos, caricaturista e ilustrador, estudante de Artes Visuais e utiliza das técnicas tradicionais ao digital para criação dos seus trabalhos.

 

Por Diana Poepcke

 

Exagerei no título, não é? Mas quem nunca ouviu uma expressão como “Vamos resgatar a cultura/tradição/memória/identidade sambentista?” Não é verdade? Em tempos de resgates exacerbados, peço ao leitor que reflita:

 

1) O que é tradição para você? O que faz com que algo seja tradicional?

2) O que é identidade? O que você considera como identidade cultural? Você se reconhece nessa identidade?

 

Mais do que nunca, queremos falar sobre história, memória, tradições e identidade na contemporaneidade. Presenciamos um momento de individualismo exacerbado com trocas de informações na velocidade da luz. As redes sociais e a internet, de um modo geral, ocasionaram uma aceleração da nossa noção de tempo, tanto que vivemos no mundo efêmero do SnapChat. Alguns estudiosos explicariam que passamos por um processo de esvaziamento da memória, acarretando angústia e sensação de não pertencimento a uma comunidade ou território. Essa dinâmica pode gerar a necessidade da presença do passado, ou seja, faz com que se queira ter mais acesso ao passado. Consequentemente, nunca se falou tanto em “resgate” de tradições e memórias. Todavia, cuidado!

 

Dentre os sentidos do verbo resgatar, segundo o dicionário Michaellis, temos o sentido de “recuperar”. Quando pensamos em “resgatar tradições”, abrimos margem para o pensamento “recuperar/reviver tradições”. Uma boa frase sobre a investigação histórica é do Profº Marcos Francisco Napolitano de Eugenio: “o historiador não é bombeiro, nem juiz. Não resgata e não condena. Tenta compreender, criticar, apontar contradições, estabelecer conexões plausíveis a partir de uma argumentação baseada em indícios deixados pelas fontes”.

 

Dentro dos campos de estudos da história, a definição de tradição é polêmica, inclusive temos o conceito da “tradição inventada”. Entretanto, não entraremos nesse debate aqui, mas vamos estabelecer alguns parâmetros: as tradições e as identidades são mutantes e mutáveis, são categorias que não podem ser congeladas no tempo. Quando falamos em “resgatar” alguma tradição ou identidade, ocasionalmente a congelamos no tempo. O que isso quer dizer? Que são elementos sujeitos a modificações ao longo da história, pois a sociedade sofre mudanças constantemente. São categorias envolvidas diretamente com o homem, que por sua vez, muda de opinião, concepções e sentimentos, sobretudo em um contexto no qual somos bombardeados com informações e opiniões a todo minuto. Consequentemente, os elementos que estão ligados e dependentes dele, diretamente, também serão passíveis de mudança.

 

Algumas visões apontam que não faria sentido resgatar ou recuperar uma tradição, pois a extinção ou a modificação dela se dão em virtude de novos valores adotados pela comunidade, fazendo com que a tradição perdesse o sentido para ela. Vamos pensar a identidade, a grosso modo, como um conjunto de valores que representa culturalmente um grupo de pessoas. Sendo assim, se esse grupo de pessoas, nele incluídas as novas gerações, não se identifica e não se reconhece naqueles valores preestabelecidos, pode-se considerar que a identidade se modificou e se modelou a partir dos novos valores que representam esse grupo.

 

Neste momento o caríssimo leitor, revoltado comigo, exclama: então não vamos falar mais das tradições que estão desaparecendo e vamos deixá-las de lado? CLARO QUE NÃO!! Pois são conjuntos de significados importantes para uma comunidade e uma conjuntura histórica, vitais para o processo de percepção da identidade e sua trajetória. Então o que vamos fazer? Vamos investigar, estudar, inventariar, historicizar, apontar as rupturas e as continuidades, demonstrando como esses valores se inserem nas conjunturas históricas e promover a salvaguarda.

 

As tradições, as identidades e a memória são de suma importância para uma comunidade, entretanto é preciso saber como aborda-las, pois, caso contrário, podemos cair em um processo de espetacularização destas, o que pode não ser culturalmente produtivo.

 

Se você de interessou pelo tema, sugiro as seguintes leituras:

BAUMAN, Zigmunt. O mal-estar da pós-modernidade. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, 1998

HOBSBAWM, Eric; RANGER, Terence (orgs.). A invenção das tradições.  Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1984.

GUMBRECHT, Hans Ulrich. Produção de presença: o que o sentido não consegue transmitir. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, 2010

 

 

Diana Poepcke é historiadora, especializada em gestão cultural com ênfase de acervos arquivísticos e museográficos. É idealizadora do projeto Museu da Mantiqueira (MuMan), Memórias de Maria e O Turista Criativo.


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  70. Uma amiga
    11/11/2015 às 7:01 pm

    Texto típico de um jornalista sensacionalista e não de um historiador, que está mais preocupado com (fazer) a História do Tempo Presente do que qualquer outra coisa.
    Há assuntos no campo da História que tem mais conflito do que o tema “tradição”, que na verdade nem é um tema e sim um apêndice da “Memória” e acredito que tenha sido isso que você queria ressaltar neste post/coluna, então eu sugiro que leia o livro História e Memória do Jacques Le Goff, porque não tem como você falar de tradição/memória/identidade sem citar esta obra clássica e é por isso que eu não reconheço a cientificidade do seu ponto de vista, que apesar de ter argumentos fortes não tem base o suficiente para validá-los.

  71. Atento
    05/11/2015 às 10:42 am

    Alto lá!
    Tudo depende da honestidade do historiador, não é?
    Não se comportaram exatamente assim Tácito e Flávio Josefo, o primeiro cupincha dos poderosos, e o segundo um oscilante de mão cheia, muitas vezes ficava em cima do muro.
    Dois dos maiores, e foram “juízes” por escolherem os lados que queriam ficar, o historiador pode fazer isso, não tem como não “tomar partido”.
    E como “tradição”, dentre outras definições, é “oralidade”, as gerações vão se comunicando, como é que o historiador também não resgata?
    Ele resgata, sim, pois tem que conversar, perguntar. Não é um resgate? Não são “os indícios deixados pela fonte”?
    Então, eu não concordo com nada do que disse o professor Marcos Francisco Napolitano de Eugenio.
    Se alguém pensa que o historiador somente vê o bonde passar –e apenas registra isso- está redondamente (ou quadradamente) enganado.
    Às vezes a gente tem que fazer vista grossa ao que nos convém.
    É verdade, “as tradições são mutantes e mutáveis”, depende do gosto do freguês.

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